Supplement categories and listing

Bodybuilders may supplement their diets with protein for reasons of convenience, lower cost (relative to meat and fish products) and to avoid the concurrent consumption of carbohydrates and fats. In addition, some argue that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training and goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth;[18] however there is no compelling evidence and no scientific consensus for bodybuilders to consume more protein than the recommended dietary .

allowance.Protein supplements are sold in ready-to-drink shakes, bars, meal replacement products (see below), bites, oats, gels and powders. Protein powders are the most popular and may have flavoring added for palatability. The powder is usually mixed with water, milk or fruit juice and is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising or in place of a meal. The sources of protein are as follows and differ in protein quality depending on their amino acid profile and digestibility:

Whey protein contains high levels of all the essential amino acids and branched-chain amino acids. It also has the highest content of the amino acid cysteine, which aids in the biosynthesis of glutathione. For bodybuilders whey protein provides amino acids used to aid in muscle recovery.[25] Whey protein is derived from the process of making cheese from milk. There are three types of whey protein: whey concentrate, whey isolate, and whey hydrolysate. Whey concentrate is 29–89% protein by weight whereas whey isolate is 90%+ protein by weight. Whey hydrolysate is enzymatically predigested and therefore has the highest rate of digestion of all protein types. Whey protein is usually taken immediately before and after a workout

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Casein protein (or milk protein) has glutamine, and casomorphin. Casein is usually taken before going to bed

Egg-white protein is a lactose- and dairy-free protein.

Hemp protein from hemp seed, contains highly-digestible protein, and hemp oil is high in essential fatty acids

Rice protein, when made from the whole grain, is a protein source that is highly digestible and allergen free. Since rice protein is low in the amino acid lysine, it is often combined with pea protein powder to achieve a superior amino acid profile.

Pea protein is a hypoallergenic protein with a lighter texture than most other protein powders. Pea protein has an amino acid profile similar to that of soy, but pea protein does not elicit concerns about unknown effects of phytoestrogens[citation needed]. Pea protein is also less allergenic than soy. Pea protein has high fiber content and has no allergic ingredients and therefore is easy for digestion as compared to whey protein. Pea protein is a slow digesting protein and is able to keep you full longer.

Some nutritionists claim that osteoporosis may occur from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching.[1] However, some have suggested that higher calcium excretion may be due to a corresponding increase in protein-induced calcium absorption in the intestines

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In addition to complete proteins, some supplements will contain protein fragments such as branched-chain amino acids or individual amino acids (such as glutamine). Amino acids are considered to be inferior to whole protein and have been used by some companies to artificially inflate and falsify protein values in their product (protein spiking). Many protein supplements explicitly indicate on the label that no protein spiking has occurred.

Amino acids

Some bodybuilders believe amino acid supplements may benefit muscle development, but consumption of such supplements is unnecessary.[29]

Essential fatty acids

The essential fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid) may be especially important to supplement while bodybuilding;[dubious – discuss][medical citation needed] these cannot readily be made in the body, but are required for various functions within the body to take place.[citation needed] Fatty fish, such as fresh salmon and trout are rich in essential fatty acids and fish oils can also be taken in supplement form. Flaxseed oil, often sold as a supplement on its own, is an ideal source of alpha-Linolenic acid, which can also be found in walnuts and pumpkin seeds.[30]